Radial and bias-ply motorcycle tires have different strengths and excel at different tasks. The question isn’t so much about which tire is better, but rather which tire is better for the application. Radial tires were an attempt to correct some unwanted characteristics of bias-ply tires. Bias-ply tires do not shed heat quickly, for starters. As motorcycles became faster and faster, the tires were limiting how quickly the riders could ride them. The bikes were capable, but the tires of the day couldn’t go the distance. Radial tires’ steel belts dissipated heat better. The second problem is that bias-ply tires have a very stiff sidewall due to the fact that all the plies run from sidewall to sidewall. Because radial tires have fewer layers of body cords on the sidewall, the sidewalls allow the tire to flex more. This means the contact patch of the tire stays put on the ground a bit better, and the sidewall provides lots more feedback to the rider. This design also allows the sidewall and tread to work more independently of each other than a bias-ply permits.Sport-bike folks are usually interested in performance, which means speed. They need tires that can hold together under extreme stresses. Touring riders typically are interested in performance, which means load-carrying capacity and longevity. They need tires that can hold together under heavy burdens. Happily, there's a method of tire construction that shines for each! Bias-ply tires’ stiff sidewalls perform admirably under heavy loads. Their inherent lack of flex also means the sidewall won’t "wash out" in a turn as easily as a radial. When motorcycles come out of the factory with bias-plies and radials mixed, the bias-ply is always in the front. Often, it’s on a bike with a skinny, large-diameter hoop up front, like an FX-style Harley, backed up by a wider-than-130 rear tire. Bias-ply tires are also the only tube-type tire available. Many riders like the classic look of spoked wheels, and in off-road situations, spoked wheels are usually a little more sturdy and wheel damage is not always catastrophic, as it usually is with cast wheels. Different manufacturers have different positions on adding tubes to radials, but such a setup is usually not ideal. Radial tires, as we discussed, dissipate heat better and allow better sidewall flex. Another issue related to their construction is the ability to create a tire that has substantially larger tread than sidewall. On bias-ply tires, the width of the tread and the height of the sidewall are typically similar. Radial construction, though, allows those two dimensions to be substantially different. What does that mean?It means something like an extra-wide tire — say a 300-series — can be made without a crazy-tall-looking sidewall. Those of you interested in Y2k-era choppers really have radials to thank for that whole look. Wide rears could not happen with bias-ply tires. Radial construction also ushered in the modern sport-bike tire, with a fairly wide tread, but a very short sidewall. Such a tire still gives excellent feedback to the rider and runs fairly cool, but does not flex very much. That lack of sidewall flex, despite the thin sidewall, allows the tire to be strong and act rigid, so that it feels secure and planted under cornering forces. The same sidewall also keeps the bike from feeling "squirrelly" under acceleration or hardbraking when the bike's not perfectly upright. Radial and bias-ply motorcycle tires have different strengths and excel at different tasks. The question isn’t so much about which tire is better, but rather which tire is better for the application.
• Tread– This is the part you see that hits the road, and the part most people think about. For the most part, smoother tires work better on smooth, dry surfaces, and ‘chunkier’ tires work better off-road. There are special tire designs for snow, ice, and sand. • Bead– This is the part of the tire that mates to the wheel. It is typically steel wire covered heavily in rubber. The bead has a snug fit to the wheel to prevent the wheel from sliding rotationally in the tire. • Carcass– Briefly, this is the ‘body’ of the tire under the tread. Motorcycle tires are typically bias-ply or radial, which refers to how the tire is constructed. Bias-ply tires have belts which are typically cords made of fiber – polyester, aramid, or fiberglass, which run from bead-to-bead on an angle of thirty to forty degrees or so. Radial ply tires have the casing cords run directly from bead to bead radiating outwards like the spokes of a wheel. Because the cords do not cross each other the casing ismore flexible. The structure is stabilized by a belt formed of layers of cords (which are almost always steel) laid right around the casing just under the tread rubber. The belt cords are placed at a low angle to the centerline of the tread and alternate layers cross each other at angles ranging from 30 to 45'. • Sidewall– the area of the tire that bridges the tread and bead. A small part of the tire, it is vitally important – it gives the tire much of its handling and load transfer characteristics. This is the part of the tire we’re talking about when we reference height, profile, or aspect ratio. Typically, a shorter sidewall yields a stiffer sidewall, which tends to flex less. To a rider, this means better handling and turning, worse bump absorption, and more difficult mounting. This section greatly contributes to the tire’s role in the suspension. That’s right - the tire is a suspension component!
Because silicones can withstand astonishing stress and temperature extremes, they are used in many aspects of aircraft and spacecraft assembly and maintenance. Adhesives and sealants are used to seal and protect the following from the elements: doors, windows, wings, fuel tanks, hydraulic switches, overhead bins, wing edges, leading gear electrical devices, vent ducts, engine gaskets, electrical wires and black boxes.Silicones deliver the strength, adhesion and durability needed in high-performance automobiles, ocean vessels and spacecraft. Exteriors are more resistant to heat and cold, rain, wind, salt, abrasion, ultraviolet radiation and chemicals because of silicone adhesives and coatings used to extend theservice life of cars, boats and planes. Joints last longer and overall maintenance and repair is lesscostly. Silicone coatings ensure that airbags don’t deteriorate over time and that they remain gas-tightand heat-resistant under the pressure from rapid inflation and other extreme conditions, such as fire.Silicone coatings are also used as release agents to allow tire manufacturers to get the tires out oftheir manufacturing molds and silicone rubber is used in many tires to provide long wear life andsuperior traction.
http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-ban-on-plastic-cups-plates-likely-by-18-2552907 By 2018, not just plastic bags, but other plastic products for consumer use like cups and plates may also be banned. State environment department sources told DNA that they were planning to ban not only plastic bags, but also plastic cups and plates considering their impact on public health and the environment. However, the move will be implemented in stages. Earlier, Environment Minister Ramdas Kadam had announced a ban on plastic bags by Gudhi Padwa (Maharashtrian New Year) in March next year. After the July 26, 2005 deluge in Mumbai, the state had banned plastic bags below 50 microns. However, officials admit that bags below permitted standards are clandestinely brought in from neighbouring states and used by roadside hawkers and vendors. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) officials said estimates suggested that around 3 to 5 per cent of municipal waste comprised of plastic. Mumbai generates around 10,000 ton solid waste daily. "We are planning to ban plastic in stages beginning with plastic bags. This may cover other uses like plastic cups, plates, some sachets and even thermocol plates. Such plastics pollute the environment and soil, causing flooding during rains and affect public health. Modalities are under consideration," the official said. He added that the ban may be enforced beginning with beaches, forts and tourist spots. "However, we may have to make exceptions for some consumer uses of plastic like in cargo, logistics, milk, medicinal packing, packaged water and imported goods," the official stated. The official explained they were examining how alternatives to plastic could be evolved. This could involve subsidies to women self-help groups to manufacture cloth bags and involving them in recycling of plastic waste, change in taxation and stiffer penalties to bring down plastic use. "We plan to brainstorm with experts and stakeholders before a proposal is moved to the cabinet," he added. The real solution, the official pointed out, lay in public participation to enforce the ban, recycling and scientific disposal. "We will examine models adopted by other states… There can be no blanket ban on plastic. However, plastic can be banned for uses where it cannot be recycled or reused. This means that while plastic chairs and spectacle frames can be manufactured and used, plastic bags, plates and cups can be done away with," explained a MPCB official. The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change's Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, state that producers, brand owners and importers of plastic carry bags, multi-layered plastic sachet, pouches, or packaging should establish a system for collecting plastic waste generated due to their products. An environment department official pointed to how rampant dumping of plastic bags in drains and storm water channels led to flooding and use of such thin bags and cups for serving tea and coffee also had health implications as they consisted of chemical compounds. Already banned The manufacture, distribution, stocking or sale of carry bags made of virgin or recycled plastic less than 8X12 inches (20X30 cms) in size and below minimum thickness of 50 microns is banned under the Maharashtra Plastic Carry Bags (Manufacture and Usage) Rules, 2006.
Many experts and authorities consider silicone completely safe for food use. For example Health Canada states: "There are no known health hazards associated with use of silicone cookware. Silicone rubber does not react with food or beverages, or produce any hazardous fumes."Scientific American reports that in 1979 the US Food and Drug Administration determined silicon dioxides—the raw material for silicone products—were safe for food-grade applications. However, the first silicone cookware only appeared a decade later (e.g., spatulas) and no follow-up studies were done to assess whether silicone cookware leaches anything potentially harmful. The fact is, there has not been a lot of research done to date on the health effects of silicone.Nonetheless, our own research and review of peer-reviewed scientific studies that have been done indicates we should begin to be cautious about silicone. Here are some highlights: Silicones are not completely inert or chemically unreactive and can release toxic chemicals. They can leach certain synthetic chemicals at low levels, and the leaching is increased with fatty substances, such as oils. Evidence of contamination from silicone was found in wine and edible oil foods. Materials such as aluminium, platinum, magnesium and calcium were found to have leached into food when testing was carried out on silicone bakeware. Fluid silicone studies indicated release of siloxanes, one of which - cylcopentasiloxane - is considered toxic and persistent. This siloxane, also known as D5, is used as a softener in cosmetics, and according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may also be carcinogenic. (2005 Report commissioned by the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency: Chemical migration from silicones used in connection with food-contact materials and articles)Silicone tubing commonly used for medical applications has been shown to leach several chemicals, including dioctyl phthalate (DOP). (2006 Study in International Journal of Pharmaceutics: Extractables/leachables from plastic tubing used in product manufacturing)Silicone intravenous devices have been shown to leach silicone and cause local inflammation. (1999 Study in Archives of Disease in Childhood: Plastic migration from implanted central venous access devices)Silicones likely not completely inert and may cause local inflammation. as suggested in this study on the breakdown of silicone joint implants. (1985 Study in Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology: Silicone-induced foreign body reaction and lymphadenopathy after temporomandibular joint arthroplasty)Our Suggestion: Relatively safe. But silicone is not as inert, stable and chemically unreactive as many claim. Use with caution, and if you can find an alternative, use it. As you can see from our product line, we carry a number of items that contain silicone, usually in the form of seals or gaskets. Silicone has become a standard high quality seal for products requiring a airtight watertight seal, and a suitable alternative has not yet become available. For now, we are comfortable continuing to carry products that have high quality, food grade silicone parts. We balance the toxicity information stated above with the knowledge that silicone is a high quality, relatively stable material, and leaching of chemicals from other plastics is of much greater concern. We feel uneasy about silicone cookware. While silicone is durable and has a high temperature resistance, it makes us queasy to be heating food to very high temperatures in a material like silicone which has now been shown to leach and is not completely inert and stable. If you are going to use silicone, be sure it is high quality, food grade silicone and does not contain any fillers. To test a product for fillers you can pinch and twist a flat surface of it to see if any white shows through. If so, a filler likely has been used. As a result, the product may not be uniformly heat resistant and may impart an odor to food. But most importantly, you will have no idea what the filler is and it may leach unknown chemicals into the food. For all you know, the filler may be a silicone of low quality or not silicone at all.
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IS SILICONE A PLASTIC? Good question. Here are some others... Is it a rubber? Is it natural? Is it synthetic? What the heck is it? And most importantly: Is it safe? Description and Typical Use: What is silicone? Technically, silicone is considered part of the rubber family. But, if you define plastics widely, as we do, silicone is something of a hybrid between a synthetic rubber and a synthetic plastic polymer. Silicone can be used to make malleable rubber-like items, hard resins, and spreadable fluids. We treat silicone as a plastic like any other, given that it has many plastic-like properties: flexibility, malleability, clarity, temperature resistance, water resistance. Like plastic, it can be shaped or formed and softened or hardened into practically anything. But it is a unique plastic because it is much more temperature resistant and durable than most plastics and has a low reactivity with chemicals. And while water resistant, it is also highly gas permeable, making it useful for medical or industrial applications where air flow is required. It's also easy-to-clean, non-stick, and non-staining, making it popular for cookware and kitchen utensils. Thus, while most plastics have a polymer backbone of hydrogen and carbon, silicones have a backbone made of silicon and oxygen, and hydrocarbon side groups - all of which gives them plastic-like characteristics. Silicone is often used for baby nipples, cookware, bakeware, utensils, and toys. Silicones are also used for insulation, sealants, adhesives, lubricants, gaskets, filters, medical applications (e.g., tubing), casing for electrical components.
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http://bakingbites.com/2011/06/what-is-cornstarch/ Cornstarch is a fine, powdery starchthat is made out of corn. The cornstarch is actually made from the endosperm ofthe corn, which makes up most of the kernels that we eat when enjoying popcornor corn on the cob. Cornstarch, also sometimes called cornflour (or “cornflour”), is produced by grinding, washing and drying the endosperm of the corn– the part between the outer husk and the inner seed - until it reaches thatfine, powdery state. Cornstarch is gluten free. How to Use Cornstarch Cornstarch has many culinary uses, but it is mostoften used as a thickener for sauces, gravies and fruit pie fillings.Cornstarch thickens very quickly and easily, and forms a clear sauce aftercooking, rather than an opaque one. It has roughly twice the thickening power of flour, and while it isflavorless after cooking, it does need to be cooked for a short period toremove any starchy flavor from the starch, as well as to give the mixture it isused in a chance to thicken. Unlike flour, cornstarch will clump up if addeddirectly to hot liquids and must be mixed with a small amount of color liquidbefore being incorporated into something hot, such as a gravy or a pudding.It if is added to a cold mixture, it does not need to be prepared in any waybefore cooking and will dissolve as the mixture heats up. If cooked for anextended period of time, or whisked too vigorously, a mixture thickened withcornstarch can break. Arrowroot and tapioca are both good substitutesfor cornstarch when it comes to thickening power. Cornstarch is also included in many baked goodrecipes, and is often used in conjunction with flour. Since it is gluten free,cornstarch can help add some structure to a baked good while increasing itstenderness. It appears very often in shortbreadrecipes, where bakers are looking for a very crumbly and tendertexture in the finished product. Another common way of using it is adding asmall amount of it to all purpose flour to make a substitutefor cake flour. You will also often see it included in batters,where it helps contribute to a light crust after frying.
-- Silicones Are Extremely Versatile Silicones are used across some of the most strenuous and yet some of the most sensitive applications. They add "industrial" to the "strength" of coatings, sealants and joints in skyscrapers, bridges, highways and ocean vessels. Used in personal care products and health care, they make lotions, topical medications and skin adhesives easy to apply and less irritating. Regardless of the application, silicones' wide-ranging properties make them a key ingredient in thousands of consumer and industrial materials. Silicones' versatility stems from their performance and protective qualities. -- Performance Silicones can be made in a range of forms, including: solids, resins, rubbers and fluids. Silicones have a wide range of material properties, such as: Adhering or releasing Hard or soft Rigid or flexible Absorbent or water repellent Conductive or insulating Foaming or defoaming -- Protection Silicones in clothing, outerwear, shoes and personal care products protect people from heat, cold, wetness, electricity and UV damage. Silicones used in industrial applications protect equipment and possessions from: Water damage UV damage Extreme heat Extreme cold Climate changes Corrosion Chemicals and oils UV damage Microbes And, silicones retain these properties over time so materials are less susceptible to damage from weathering, aging, temperature or climate fluctuations and normal wear and tear.